- History and Culture
S. gutturalis, commonly referred to as the African common toad or guttural toad is part of the Bufonidae family. The species is native from southern Somalia, central and southern Kenya, through Tanzania, southern Democratic Republic of Congo, and south Angola, to northern Namibia, and northern, central and eastern South Africa. It was introduced to Mauritius and Reunion. S. gutturalis is a large species of toad with males reaching up to 90 millimeters and females 120 millimeters. It is brown in colour with irregular markings.
 Encyclopedia of Life. n.d. Amietophrynus gutturalis. Accessed July 2018. http://eol.org/pages/323986/details.
The African common toad prefers subtropical or tropical dry forest, moist lowland forest, moist montane forest, dry or moist savanna, shrubland, grassland, lakes, marshes, pastureland, rural gardens and can even be found in urban areas. Guttural toads are recognized by the loud calling of the males which happens year round and is more prominent during the breeding period – typically between October and November. This activity occurs near permanent water bodies and often in large congregations, with eggs being laid in double strings in the water. Tadpoles go into metamorphosis after 75 days. Adults are opportunistic feeders, thriving on insects, slugs and snails.
The species is considered as ‘Least Concern’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. There are currently no conservation or management measure for the African common toad: it is very common and is currently spreading throughout Southern Africa.
 IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Sclerophrys gutturalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54659A107346817. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T54659A107346817.en. Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
The species’ parotid glands can exude epinephrine, which can be fatal to small mammals.