Shoal Grass Halodule wrightii

  • Lagoon Ecosystems
  • Seagrass meadow
  • Halodule
  • Flora
  • Ecosystem engineer


Halodule wrightii is dioecious, that is, male and female plants are different. Their flowers are solitary. The leaves are flat, ligulate and consist of three nerves. Leaves are of a dark reddish brown colour. Fruits are globose or egg shaped[1]. Halodule wrightii can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions.


[1] ‘Halodule Wrightii in Flora of North America @ Efloras.Org’.

Habitat and ecology

Halodule wrightii is mostly present in the Atlantic Ocean but can also be found in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean and in the Indian Ocean. It is the dominant species in Brazil and West Africa. It typically grows in sandy and muddy bottoms and can be found in multispecies assemblages. Highly adapted to disturbances, it is a pioneer species and in certain regions, it dominates the meadows. It recovers rapidly post destruction.


Conservation and management

It is widespread and locally abundant; its population trend has been deemed stable and increasing in certain areas. This species can tolerate disturbances and replaces other species under certain conditions of eutrophication, habitat destruction or increased turbidity. Besides anthropogenic activities, there are no other major threats. It is listed under the ‘Least Concern’ category of the IUCN Red List[1]. It can be found in many MPAs throughout its range.


[1] IUCN, ‘Halodule Wrightii’.

Did you know?

The optimum temperature for Shoal Grass to thrive is between 20 to 30 degrees Celsius[1].


[1] ‘Halodule Wrightii’.