Sea cucumberStichopus chloronotus

  • Rocky Shores
  • Echinoderm
  • Sea Cucumber
  • Detritivorous


Stichopus chloronotus is a sea cucumber from the family of Stichopodidae. It is commonly known as Greenfish sea cucumber, the Spiky sea cucumber or the Black knobby sea cucumber. It is a relatively large species and can grow to 25 cm in length. It has a rigid but pliable body and has a squarish shape. It has smooth skin covered by numerous cone-shaped fleshy projections (papillae) in longitudinal rows. It is of a blackish green colour and the tips of the papillae are yellow or red. It is fast growing and reproduces by sexual and asexual reproduction. The mouth is on the ventral surface and has 20 tentacles surrounding it. The anus is at the rear end. Spicules are distinct, with a narrow disc having 4 holes. Many C-shaped spicules are also present[1].


[1] ‘Stichopus Chloronotus, Greenfish : Fisheries’.

Habitat and ecology

This species is present across the Indo-Pacific region and is widespread in the region. Recorded depth range is between 0 and 60m. It is found on coral reefs and may also be seen in rubble, reef flats, and reef hollows. Juveniles settles in reef flats and later migrate to other areas. Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae, called auricularia and then into a barrel-shaped stage, called ‘doliolaria’ which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers.


Conservation and management

According to the IUCN Red List of threatened species, this species is categorized as being of ‘Least Concern’. It is commercially exploited in parts of its range. It is a relatively common and widespread species and no major declines have been recorded but it requires monitoring[1].


[1] ‘Stichopus Chloronotus’.

Did you know?

This species hosts pearlfish, namely Carapus mourlani, Carapus homei and Carapus boraborensis.